Transformations in the transportation sector will save 7 quads/y of refining energy. Half that saving will be used to produce biofuels, hydrogen, and carbon fiber. The net reduction in 2050 industrial energy use will be about 3.5 quads/y.
A. U.S. Energy Information Administration. 2010. “Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Macroeconomic Indicators Reference Case.” link
B. Aden, A. et al. 2002. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic hydrolysis for Corn Stover. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Harris Group, June. link
C. H2Gen Innovations, Inc. 2011. Personal communication with author, March.
For a 2000 scf/h system, we assumed 78% HHV fuel efficiency (for natural gas to hydrogen) with 10–15 kW electricity consumption.
D. Suzuki, Tetsuya and Jun Takahashi. 2005. “Prediction of Energy Intensity of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics for Mass-Produced Passenger Cars.” Japan International SAMPE Symposium, December 29. link
E. U.S. Geological Survey. 2005. "Iron and Steel Product End-Use Statistics". September 1. link