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Primary energy consumption in U.S. industry


Energy use for U.S. industry is conventionally projected to grow from 24.4 quads in 2010 to 30.5 quads in 2050 (extrapolated linearly from USEIA’s 2010 Annual Energy Outlook Reference Case, which ends in 2035).

In 2010, more than four-fifths of energy use in U.S. industry came from fossil fuels. Natural gas is the dominant source of energy (~35%) and remains a significant portion of 2050 business-as-usual supply. However, between 2010 and 2050, biomass demand (mostly for process energy required for biofuel generation) grows significantly from 8% to 19%.

Feedstocks (including biomass) use ~4.1 additional quads of fossil fuel per year in 2010, and are not included here because they’re used as raw materials, not fuels.


RMI analysis using data from:

A. U.S. Energy Information Administration. 2010. Annual Energy Outlook 2010. May 11 link

B. Xu, Tengfang, J. Slaa, and J. Sathaye. 2010. Characterizing Costs and Savings Benefits from a Selection of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies in the United States. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. link

C. Martin, N., E. Worrell, M. Ruth, L. Price, R. Elliott, and A. Shipley. 2000. Emerging Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. link

D. Bailey, Owen, and Ernst Worrell. 2005. Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, April. link