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Projected decline in U.S. industry sector fuel use


Net refining, efficiency and CHP savings can reduce industrial sector energy use 27% below the 2050 “business-as-usual” forecast despite 84% higher industrial production.

Efficiency gains will double industrial energy productivity and thus halve industry’s primary energy consumption. The remaining energy requirements will shift away from coal and oil to biomass and natural gas.

Note: The large biomass inputs are driven in large part due to process energy required for biofuel production (in which the assumed efficiency is based on the corn-stover cellulosic ethanol process). The majority of the biomass inputs are derived from dedicated energy crops or agricultural residue from existing food crops.


RMI analysis using data from:

A. U.S. Department of Energy. “Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Energy Prices by Sector and Source, United States, Reference Case.” link

B. Xu, Tengfang, J. Slaa, and J. Sathaye. 2010. Characterizing Costs and Savings Benefits from a Selection of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies in the United States. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. link

C. Martin, N., E. Worrell, M. Ruth, L. Price, R. Elliott, and A. Shipley. 2000. Emerging Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. link

D. Bailey, Owen, and Ernst Worrell. 2005. Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, April. link