Many demand-side and some supply-side technologies offer customers more choices, non-utility firms huge growth markets, and utilities both threats and opportunities. Utilities must make wrenching changes in their business models—or lose out to more nimble competitors, who for the first time can invest without regulators’ consent, bundling unregulated products into a potent “virtual utility” offering.
Maximum percentage of peak load that can be shaved through demand response in Reinventing Fire electricity scenarios, 2010–2050
Rocky Mountain Institute’s four scenarios for the future U.S. electricity system ( detailed here
) all have different penetrations of demand response programs.