Listed below are all documents and RMI.org site pages related to this topic.
Industry - Fuel switching 4 Items
With current fuel prices, most coal and oil use can be switched to natural gas for process heating needs.
Solar thermal heating can deliver some of the process heating requirements for industry.
Given the high volatility of natural gas prices, pricing for solar thermal projects on a lifecycle cost of heat basis can be competitive with natural gas.
Cogeneration with natural gas delivers the cheapest heat. With higher fossil fuel costs, heat pumps and solar thermal heat will become increasingly competitive sources of thermal energy.
The addition of a carbon tax will change the relative pricing per unit of heat for different fuels. At current fuel prices, heat pumps become cost competitive with coal (boiler) and natural gas (cogen) at ~$30/ton and ~$60/ton respectively.